Environmental Biology

Departmental Offices:
556-7 Schermerhorn; 212-854-4525
106 Geoscience, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory; 845-365-8550
http://eesc.columbia.edu

Directors of Undergraduate Studies:
Prof. Sidney Hemming, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory; 845-365-8417; 557 Schermerhorn Extension; sidney@ldeo.columbia.edu
Prof. Hugh Ducklow, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory; 845-365-8167; 557 Schermerhorn Extension; hducklow@ldeo.columbia.edu

Senior Administrative Manager: Carol Mountain, 557 Schermerhorn Extension; 212-854-9705; 107 Geoscience, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory; 845-365-8551; carolm@ldeo.columbia.edu

Business Manager: Sally Odland, 108 Geoscience, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory; 845-365-8633; odland@ldeo.columbia.edu

The undergraduate major in Earth and environmental sciences provides an understanding of the natural functioning of our planet and considers the consequences of human interactions with it. Our program for majors aims to convey an understanding of how the complex Earth system works at a level that encourages students to think creatively about the Earth system processes and how to address multidisciplinary environmental problems. The breadth of material covered provides an excellent background for those planning to enter the professions of law, business, diplomacy, public policy, teaching, journalism, etc. At the same time, the program provides sufficient depth so that our graduates are prepared for graduate school in one of the Earth sciences. The program can be adjusted to accommodate students with particular career goals in mind.

The department’s close affiliations with the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS), the Earth Institute at Columbia (EI), and several departments within the Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Sciences afford opportunities for student participation in a wide variety of current research programs. Summer employment, research, and additional educational opportunities are available at Lamont and GISS. The department encourages majors to become involved in a research project by their junior year.

All majors and concentrators, when planning their programs of study, should regularly consult the directors of undergraduate studies and make themselves aware of the requirements for their particular program.

Programs of Study

Environmental Science Major

The environmental science major curriculum provides an introduction to a variety of fields of study relevant to the environment. Environmental science majors are required to take three semesters of introductory courses and to develop a grounding in basic physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics. Here, students may select courses depending on their interest. With this introduction to the Earth’s environment and equipped with a knowledge of the basic sciences, students are prepared to choose a set of upper-level courses in consultation with an undergraduate adviser. All environmental science majors are required to complete a research project, providing a practical application of mastered course work. This research culminates in a senior thesis. The research and the thesis are usually done at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory with guidance from a faculty member or a research scientist. However, other options are also possible.

Environmental science majors have an option to complete the special concentration in environmental biology for environmental science majors.

Earth Science Major

The major in Earth science follows a similar rationale but is designed to allow students to pursue particular fields of the Earth sciences in greater depth. Compared with the environmental science major, one fewer introductory course is required, while one additional advanced course should be part of the plan of study. The Earth science major also offers the possibility of in-depth field experience through a six- to eight-week geology summer field course, arrangements for which are made through another university. The research and senior thesis capstone requirements are the same as for the environmental science major. The geology summer field course may be used as an alternative means of fulfilling the capstone requirement in the Earth science major.

Concentrations

The program for concentrators serves students who want more exposure to Earth and environmental science than is provided by introductory-level courses. The program aims to provide concentrators with experience in data analysis and a thorough introduction to the Earth's systems.

The concentrations in environmental science and in Earth science are designed to give students an understanding of how the Earth works and an introduction to the methods used to investigate Earth processes, including their capabilities and limitations. Concentrators often join the social professions (e.g., business, law, medicine, etc.) and take with them a strong scientific background. They take the same introductory courses as the majors, but fewer basic science and upper-level courses are required.

In addition to the environmental science and Earth science concentrations, the department sponsors a special concentration which must be done in conjunction with the environmental biology major. Students should be aware that they must complete the environmental biology major in order to receive credit for the special concentration. There is also a special concentration in environmental biology for environmental science majors sponsored by the Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Environmental Biology.

Departmental Honors

The Department of Earth and Environmental Science awards departmental honors to the major or majors in Earth science or environmental science judged to have the best overall academic record. The award is accorded to no more than 10% of the graduating class, or one student in the case of a class smaller than 10. A grade point average of at least 3.6 in the major and a senior thesis or equivalent research of high quality are required. Students who wish to be considered should contact the director of undergraduate studies early in their senior year.

Professors

  • Wallace S. Broecker
  • Mark A. Cane
  • Nicholas Christie-Blick
  • Joel E. Cohen
  • Peter B. de Menocal
  • Hugh Ducklow
  • Peter Eisenberger
  • Göran Ekström
  • Steven L. Goldstein
  • Arnold L. Gordon
  • Kevin L. Griffin
  • Sidney R. Hemming (Vice Chair)
  • Peter B. Kelemen (Chair)
  • Jerry F. McManus
  • William H. Menke
  • John C. Mutter
  • Paul E. Olsen
  • Stephanie L. Pfirman (Barnard)
  • Terry A. Plank
  • Lorenzo M. Polvani
  • G. Michael Purdy
  • Peter Schlosser
  • Christopher H. Scholz
  • Adam H. Sobel
  • Sean C. Solomon
  • Marc W. Spiegelman
  • Martin Stute (Barnard)
  • David Walker

Associate Professors

  • Sonya Dyhrman
  • Arlene M. Fiore
  • Bärbel Hönisch
  • Meredith Nettles
  • Maria Tolstoy

Assistant Professors

  • Ryan Abernathey
  • Tiffany A. Shaw

Adjunct Professors

  • Robert F. Anderson
  • W. Roger Buck IV
  • Denton Ebel
  • John J. Flynn
  • James Gaherty
  • Lisa M. Goddard
  • Arthur Lerner-Lam
  • Alberto Malinverno
  • Douglas G. Martinson
  • Ronald L. Miller
  • Mark A. Norell
  • Dorothy M. Peteet
  • Maureen Raymo
  • Andrew Robertson
  • Joerg M. Schaefer
  • Christopher Small
  • Taro Takahashi
  • Minfang Ting
  • Felix Waldhauser
  • Spahr C. Webb
  • Gisela Winckler

Adjunct Associate Professors

  • Natalie Boelman
  • Alessandra Giannini
  • Andrew Juhl
  • Andrew Robertson

Lecturers

Pietro Ceccato

Associates

  • Anthony Barnston

Guidelines for all Earth and Environmental Sciences Majors, Concentrators, and Special Concentrators

Advising

All majors and concentrators, when planning their programs of study, should regularly consult the directors of undergraduate studies, who can be contacted through the department office on the fifth floor of Schermerhorn. The requirements are different for each major and concentration and must be met in conjunction with the general requirements for the bachelor's degree. Declaration of the major must be approved by the department and filed in the departmental office.

Substitutions and Exceptions

  1. Higher-level courses may be used to satisfy supporting mathematics and science requirements for students with Advanced Placement preparation with the permission of the major adviser.
  2. In addition to the courses listed for the depth, and breadth and related courses requirements, several graduate-level courses offered in the department as well as several advanced courses offered at Barnard may be substituted with the permission of the major adviser.
  3. 1000-level courses in the Earth and Environmental Sciences Department can not be used toward meeting the requirements of any of the majors, concentrations, or special concentrations.
  4. The following courses are not suitable for undergraduates and can not be used toward meeting any of the requirements for the majors, concentrations, or special concentrations:
    EESC W4001 Advanced General Geology
    EESC W4400 Dynamics of Climate Variability and Climate Change
    EESC W4401 Quantitative Models of Climate-Sensitive Natural and Human Systems
    EESC W4404 Regional Climate and Climate Impacts
    EESC W4930 Earth's Oceans and Atmosphere

Grading

A grade of C- or better must be obtained for a course to count toward the majors, concentrations, or special concentrations. The grade of P is not acceptable, but a course taken Pass/D/Fail may be counted if and only if the P is uncovered by the Registrar's deadline.


Major in Earth Science

Please read Guidelines for all Earth and Environmental Sciences Majors, Concentrators, and Special Concentrators above.

The major in Earth science requires a minimum of 45.5 points, distributed as follows:

Foundation Courses

EESC W2200 Earth's Environmental Systems: The Solid Earth System
EESC W2100 Earth's Environmental Systems: The Climate System
or EESC W2300 Earth's Environmental Systems: The Life System

Students who wish to take both EESC W2100 Earth's Environmental Systems: The Climate System and EESC W2300 Earth's Environmental Systems: The Life System can include one of these under breadth and related fields below.

Supporting Mathematics and Science Courses

MATH V1101 Calculus I
or MATH V1102 Calculus II
Select one of the following three-course sequences:
General Chemistry I (Lecture)
   and General Chemistry II ( Lecture)
   and General Physics I
General Chemistry I (Lecture)
   and General Physics I
   and General Physics II

Capstone Experience

Select one of the following:
Senior Research Seminar
   and Environmental Science Senior Seminar
Senior Research Seminar
   and Environmental Science Senior Seminar
A six to eight week summer geology field course

Breadth and Related Fields Requirement

A minimum of 6 points (two courses) chosen with the major adviser are required.

Breadth and related field courses are science courses relevant for an Earth science major that do not require an Earth science background. Several such courses are offered at the 2000-, 3000- and 4000-level in the department and at Barnard. Examples include:

Earth's Environmental Systems: The Climate System
Earth's Environmental Systems: The Life System
Field Geology
Environmental Data Analysis
Global Assessment and Monitoring Using Remote Sensing
Earth Resources and Sustainable Development
Earth/Human Interactions
Alternative energy resources

Also included among breadth and related fields courses are science, mathematics, statistics, and engineering courses offered by other departments that count toward fulfilling degree requirements in those departments.

Depth Requirement

A minimum of 12 points (four courses) chosen with the major adviser to provide depth in the field of Earth science.

These courses build on the foundation and supporting courses listed above and provide a coherent focus in some area of Earth science. Students should include at least one of the following in their course of study:

EESC W3101 Geochemistry for a Habitable Planet
or EESC W3201 Solid Earth Dynamics

Areas of focus include one of the courses listed above and three or more additional courses. Students are not required to specialize in a focus area, but examples are given below for those who choose to do so.

Geological Science
EESC W4076 Geologic Mapping
EESC W4090 Introduction to Geochronology and Thermochronology
EESC W4113 Introduction to Mineralogy
EESC W4223 Sedimentary Geology
EESC W4230 Crustal Deformation
EESC W4480 Paleobiology and Earth System History
EESC W4701 Introduction to Igneous Petrology
EESC W4887 Isotope Geology I
EESC W4947 Plate Tectonics
It is strongly recommended that students focusing in geological science take the summer geology field course as their capstone experience.
Geochemistry
EESC W3015 The Earth's Carbon Cycle
EESC BC3016 Environmental Measurements
EESC BC3200 Ecotoxicology
EESC W4090 Introduction to Geochronology and Thermochronology
EESC W4113 Introduction to Mineralogy
EESC W4701 Introduction to Igneous Petrology
EESC W4885 The Chemistry of Continental Waters
EESC W4887 Isotope Geology I
EESC W4926 Principles of Chemical Oceanography
It is recommended that students focusing in geochemistry take CHEM C1403-CHEM C1404 General Chemistry I and II, and PHYS V1201 General Physics I as their supporting science sequence.
Atmosphere and Ocean Science
EESC W4008 Introduction to Atmospheric Science
EESC W4924 Introduction to Atmospheric Chemistry
EESC W4925 Principles of Physical Oceanography
EESC W4926 Principles of Chemical Oceanography
EESC W4920 Paleoceanography
EESC W4937 Cenozoic Paleoceanography
It is recommended that students focusing on atmosphere and ocean science also take a course in fluid dynamics and a course in differential equations.
Solid Earth Geophysics
EESC W4230 Crustal Deformation
EESC W4300 The Earth's Deep Interior
EESC W4947 Plate Tectonics
EESC W4949 Introduction to Seismology
It is recommended that students focusing in solid Earth geophysics take PHYS V1201-PHYS V1202 General Physics I and II, and CHEM C1403 General Chemistry I as their supporting science sequence and also take MATH V1201 Calculus II.
Climate
EESC W3015 The Earth's Carbon Cycle
EESC BC3025 Hydrology
EESC W4008 Introduction to Atmospheric Science
EESC W4330 Introduction to Terrestrial Paleoclimate
EESC W4835 Wetlands and Climate Change
EESC W4920 Paleoceanography
EESC W4924 Introduction to Atmospheric Chemistry
EESC W4925 Principles of Physical Oceanography
EESC W4937 Cenozoic Paleoceanography
Paleontology
EESC W4223 Sedimentary Geology
EESC W4480 Paleobiology and Earth System History
EESC W4550 Plant Ecophysiology
EESC W4920 Paleoceanography
EESC W4924 Introduction to Atmospheric Chemistry
EESC W4937 Cenozoic Paleoceanography
It is recommended that students focusing in paleontology take EESC V2300 Earth's Environmental Systems: The Life System, as one of their foundation courses.

Major in Environmental Science

Please read Guidelines for all Earth and Environmental Sciences Majors, Concentrators, and Special Concentrators above.

The major in environmental science requires a minimum of 47 points, distributed as follows:

Foundation Courses

EESC W2100 Earth's Environmental Systems: The Climate System
EESC W2200 Earth's Environmental Systems: The Solid Earth System
EESC W2300 Earth's Environmental Systems: The Life System

Supporting Mathematics and Science Courses

MATH V1101 Calculus I
or MATH V1102 Calculus II
Select one of the following three-course sequences:
General Chemistry I (Lecture)
   and General Chemistry II ( Lecture)
   and General Physics I
General Chemistry I (Lecture)
   and General Physics I
   and General Physics II
General Chemistry I (Lecture)
   and Environmental Biology I: Elements to Organisms
   and General Physics I

Capstone Experience

EESC BC3800 Senior Research Seminar
or EESC BC3801 Senior Research Seminar
EESC W3901 Environmental Science Senior Seminar

Breadth and Related Fields Requirement

A minimum of 6 points (two courses) chosen with the major adviser are required.

Breadth and related field courses are science courses relevant for an environmental science major that do not require an environmental science background. Several such courses are offered at the 2000-, 3000- and 4000-level in the department and at Barnard. Examples include:

EESC W3010 Field Geology
EESC BC3017 Environmental Data Analysis
EESC W4050 Global Assessment and Monitoring Using Remote Sensing
EESC W4600 Earth Resources and Sustainable Development
EESC W4917 Earth/Human Interactions

Also included among breadth and related fields courses are science, mathematics, statistics, and engineering courses offered by other departments that count toward fulfilling degree requirements in those departments.

Depth Requirement

A minimum of 9 points (three courses) chosen with the major adviser to provide depth in the field of environmental science.

These courses build on the foundation and supporting courses listed above and provide a coherent focus in some area of environmental science. Students should include at least one of the following in their course of study:

EESC W3101 Geochemistry for a Habitable Planet
or EESC W3201 Solid Earth Dynamics

Areas of focus include one of the courses listed above and two or more additional courses. Students are not required to specialize in a focus area, but examples are given below for those who choose to do so.

Environmental Geology
EESC W4076 Geologic Mapping
EESC W4480 Paleobiology and Earth System History
EAEE E3221 Environmental geophysics
It is recommended that students focusing in environmental geology also take EESC W4050 Remote Sensing.
Environmental Geochemistry
EESC W3015 The Earth's Carbon Cycle
EESC W4885 The Chemistry of Continental Waters
EESC W4887 Isotope Geology I
EESC W4888 Isoptope Geology II
EESC W4924 Introduction to Atmospheric Chemistry
EESC W4926 Principles of Chemical Oceanography
Hydrology
EESC W4076 Geologic Mapping
EESC W4835 Wetlands and Climate Change
EESC W4885 The Chemistry of Continental Waters
EESC BC3025 Hydrology
EAEE E3221 Environmental geophysics
Climate Change
EESC W3015 The Earth's Carbon Cycle
EESC W4008 Introduction to Atmospheric Science
EESC W4330 Introduction to Terrestrial Paleoclimate
EESC W4480 Paleobiology and Earth System History
EESC W4835 Wetlands and Climate Change
EESC W4920 Paleoceanography
It is recommended that students focusing in environmental geology also take EESC W4050 Remote Sensing.
Energy and Resources
EESC W4076 Geologic Mapping
EESC W4701 Introduction to Igneous Petrology
EAEE E2002 Alternative energy resources

Concentration in Earth Science

Please read Guidelines for all Earth and Environmental Sciences Majors, Concentrators, and Special Concentrators above.

The concentration in Earth science requires a minimum of 25 points, distributed as follows:

Foundation Courses

EESC W2200 Earth's Environmental Systems: The Solid Earth System
EESC W2100 Earth's Environmental Systems: The Climate System
or EESC W2300 Earth's Environmental Systems: The Life System

Supporting Mathematics and Science Courses

Two science or mathematics courses (6-7 points) selected from among those listed for the Earth science major above.

Depth and Breadth and Related Fields Requirements

A minimum of 10 points (typically three courses) is required as follows:

EESC W3101 Geochemistry for a Habitable Planet
or EESC W3201 Solid Earth Dynamics
One additional course chosen from those listed under Depth Requirement for the earth science major above.
The third course selected from those listed under either Depth Requirement or Breadth and Related Fields Requirement for the earth science major above.

Concentration in Environmental Science

Please read Guidelines for all Earth and Environmental Sciences Majors, Concentrators, and Special Concentrators above.

The concentration in environmental science requires a minimum of 25.5 points, distributed as follows:

Foundation Courses

EESC W2200 Earth's Environmental Systems: The Solid Earth System
EESC W2100 Earth's Environmental Systems: The Climate System
EESC W2300 Earth's Environmental Systems: The Life System

Supporting Mathematics and Science Courses

Two science or mathematics courses (6-7 points) selected from among those listed for the environmental science major above.

Depth and Breadth and Related Fields Requirements

A minimum of 6 points (two courses) is required as follows:

EESC W3101 Geochemistry for a Habitable Planet
or EESC W3201 Solid Earth Dynamics
One additional course selected from those listed under either Depth Requirement or Breadth and Related Fields Requirement for the environmental science major above.

Special Concentration in Environmental Science for Majors in Environmental Biology

Please read Guidelines for all Earth and Environmental Sciences Majors, Concentrators, and Special Concentrators above.

The Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences sponsors a special concentration which must be done in conjunction with the environmental biology major. Students should be aware that they must complete the environmental biology major in order to receive credit for the special concentration.

The special concentration in environmental science requires a minimum of 31.5 points, distributed as follows:

Introductory Environmental Science (13.5 points)

EESC W2100 Earth's Environmental Systems: The Climate System
EESC W2200 Earth's Environmental Systems: The Solid Earth System
EESC W2300 Earth's Environmental Systems: The Life System

Introductory Science (6 points)

Two courses in chemistry, physics, mathematics, or environmental biology from the supporting mathematics and science list for the environmental science major above.

Advanced Environmental Science (12 points)

Four courses at the 3000-level or above chosen from those recommended for the environmental science major above.

Advanced courses used to fulfill requirements in the environmental biology major cannot count toward requirements for the special concentration.


Special Concentration in Environmental Biology for Majors in Environmental Science

Please read Guidelines for all Earth and Environmental Sciences Majors, Concentrators, and Special Concentrators above.

The Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Environmental Biology sponsors a special concentration which must be done in conjunction with the environmental science major. Students should be aware that they must complete the environmental science major in order to receive credit for the special concentration.

The special concentration in environmental biology requires a minimum of 39 points, distributed as follows:

Introductory Environmental Biology and Environmental Science (17 points)

EEEB W2001 Environmental Biology I: Elements to Organisms
EEEB W2002 Environmental Biology II: Organisms to the Biosphere (equivalent to EESC V2300)
EESC W2100 Earth's Environmental Systems: The Climate System
EESC W2200 Earth's Environmental Systems: The Solid Earth System

Introductory Science (13 points)

Select one of the following chemistry sequences:
General Chemistry I (Lecture)
   and General Chemistry II ( Lecture)
Second Semester General Chemistry (Intensive)
   and Intensive General Chemistry Laboratory
One term of statistics such as the following:
Introduction to Statistics (without calculus)
Introduction to Statistics (with calculus)
Statistics and Research Design
Introduction to Statistics for Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
EEEB W3087 Conservation Biology

Advanced Environmental Biology (9 points)

Three additional advanced EEEB courses (3000-level and above), each chosen from a different curricular area (evolution/genetics, ecology/behavior/conservation, anatomy/physiology/diversity, biology laboratory courses).

Advanced courses used to fulfill requirements in the environmental science major cannot count toward requirements for the special concentration.

Sustainable Development

Students interested in sustainable development should refer to the Sustainable Development section in this Bulletin.

Students interested in sustainable development should refer to the Sustainable Development section in this Bulletin.

Fall 2015

EESC W1030 Oceanography. 3 points.

CC/GS: Partial Fulfillment of Science Requirement

Explore the geology of the sea floor, understand what drives ocean currents and how ocean ecosystems operate. Case studies and discussions centered on ocean-related issues facing society.

Fall 2015: EESC W1030
Course Number Section/Call Number Times/Location Instructor Points Enrollment
EESC 1030 001/88697 T Th 8:40am - 9:55am
501 Northwest Corner
Baerbel Hoenisch 3 90

EESC W1600 Earth Resources and Sustainable Development. 3 points.

CC/GS: Partial Fulfillment of Science Requirement

Prerequisites: None; high school chemistry recommended.

Survey of the origin and extent of mineral resources, fossil fuels, and industrial materials, that are non renewable, finite resources, and the environmental consequences of their extraction and use, using the textbook Earth Resources and the Environment, by James Craig, David Vaughan and Brian Skinner. This course will provide an overview, but will include focus on topics of current societal relevance, including estimated reserves and extraction costs for fossil fuels, geological storage of CO2, sources and disposal methods for nuclear energy fuels, sources and future for luxury goods such as gold and diamonds, and special, rare materials used in consumer electronics (e.g., “Coltan”, mostly from Congo) and in newly emerging technologies such as superconducting magnets and rechargeable batteries (e.g., heavy rare earth elements, mostly from China). Guest lectures from economists, commodity traders and resource geologists will provide “real world” input.  Discussion Session Required.

Fall 2015: EESC W1600
Course Number Section/Call Number Times/Location Instructor Points Enrollment
EESC 1600 001/11782 T Th 11:40am - 12:55pm
833 Seeley W. Mudd Building
Peter Kelemen 3 75

EESC W2100 Earth's Environmental Systems: The Climate System. 4.5 points.

CC/GS: Partial Fulfillment of Science Requirement, BC: Partial Fulfillment of General Education Requirement: Laboratory Science (SCI)., BC: Fulfillment of General Education Requirement: Quantitative and Deductive Reasoning (QUA)., Lab Required

Prerequisites: high school algebra. Recommended preparation: high school chemistry and physics; and one semester of college science.

Priority given to Columbia and Barnard earth science, environmental science, and environmental biology majors should enrollment limits  be reinstated. Origin and development of the atmosphere and oceans, formation of winds, storms and ocean currents, reasons for changes through geologic time. Recent influence of human activity: the ozone hole, global warming, water pollution. Laboratory exploration of topics through demonstrations, experimentation, computer data analysis, and modeling.

Fall 2015: EESC W2100
Course Number Section/Call Number Times/Location Instructor Points Enrollment
EESC 2100 001/65140 T Th 10:10am - 11:25am
603 Schermerhorn Hall
Adam Sobel, Sonya Dyhrman 4.5 49
EESC 2100 001/65140 W 4:10pm - 7:00pm
558 Schermerhorn Hall
Adam Sobel, Sonya Dyhrman 4.5 49

EESC W2200 Earth's Environmental Systems: The Solid Earth System. 4.5 points.

CC/GS: Partial Fulfillment of Science Requirement, BC: Partial Fulfillment of General Education Requirement: Laboratory Science (SCI)., Lab Required

Prerequisites: high school algebra and chemistry. Recommended preparation: high school physics.

Priority given to Columbia and Barnard earth science, environmental science, and environmental biology majors should enrollment limits be necessary. Columbia and Barnard majors should plan to take W2200 before their senior year to avoid conflicts with the Senior Seminar. Exploration of how the solid Earth works, today and in the past, focusing on Earth in the Solar system, continents and oceans, the Earth's history, mountain systems on land and sea, minerals and rocks, weathering and erosion, hydrological cycle and rivers, geochronology, plate tectonics, earthquakes, volcanoes, fossil fuels. Laboratory exploration of topics through examination of rock samples, experimentation, computer data analysis, field exercises, and modeling.

Fall 2015: EESC W2200
Course Number Section/Call Number Times/Location Instructor Points Enrollment
EESC 2200 001/67504 T Th 2:40pm - 3:55pm
603 Schermerhorn Hall
Steven Goldstein, Sidney Hemming 4.5 43
EESC 2200 001/67504 T 4:10pm - 7:00pm
603 Schermerhorn Hall
Steven Goldstein, Sidney Hemming 4.5 43

EESC W2330 Science for Sustainable Development. 3 points.

CC/GS: Partial Fulfillment of Science Requirement

Provides an introduction to natural science approaches essential to understanding central issues of sustainable development. Topics may include: climate, ecology/agriculture/biodiversity, energy, natural disasters, population dynamics, public health and water resources. Treatment includes background, methods and applications from selected settings throughout the world. Taught by specialists in a number of fields.

Fall 2015: EESC W2330
Course Number Section/Call Number Times/Location Instructor Points Enrollment
EESC 2330 001/10732 M W 2:40pm - 3:55pm
602 Hamilton Hall
John Mutter, Ruth DeFries 3 63

EESC W3000 Tutorial Study in Earth and Environmental Sciences. 1-3 points.

CC/GS: Partial Fulfillment of Science Requirement

Prerequisites: declared major in Earth and environmental sciences and the department's permission.

Students with particular interest in one of the many components of the Earth and environmental sciences should approach a director of undergraduate studies during the registration period so that tutorial-level exposure to the subject can be arranged. Each point requires two hours each week of readings, discussion, and research work under the close supervision of a member of the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, American Museum of Natural History, or Goddard Institute for Space Studies. In consultation with the supervisor, the student selects a topic for intensive study and the time and place of the tutorial discussion sessions. May be repeated for credit up to a maximum of 12 points, with a maximum of 6 points with each staff member. 

EESC W3101 Geochemistry for a Habitable Planet. 3 points.

CC/GS: Partial Fulfillment of Science Requirement

Prerequisites: Any 1000-level or 2000-level EESC course; MATH V1101 (Calculus I) and CHEM W1403 (General Chemistry I) or their equivalents.

The origin, evolution and future of our planet, based on the book How to Build a Habitable Planet by Wallace S. Broecker. This course will focus on the geochemical processes that built Earth from solar material, led to its differentiation into continents and ocean, and have maintained its surface at a comfortable temperature. Students will participate in a hands-on geochemistry project at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory.

Fall 2015: EESC W3101
Course Number Section/Call Number Times/Location Instructor Points Enrollment
EESC 3101 001/11780 T Th 1:10pm - 2:25pm
506 Schermerhorn Hall
Terry Plank 3 16

EESC W3015 The Earth's Carbon Cycle. 3 points.

CC/GS: Partial Fulfillment of Science Requirement

Prerequisites: introductory chemistry and environmental science or their equivalents, or instructor's permission.

Given in alternate years. Three problems are considered: the identity of the missing sink for fossil fuel CO2, the cause of the low atmospheric CO2 content during glacial time, and the possibility of a tie between tectonics and atmospheric CO2 content.

Fall 2015: EESC W3015
Course Number Section/Call Number Times/Location Instructor Points Enrollment
EESC 3015 001/29573 T Th 10:10am - 11:25am
555 Schermerhorn Hall
Wallace Broecker 3 12/12

EESC BC3800 Senior Research Seminar. 3 points.

Prerequisites: Enrollment limited to senior majors (juniors with permission of the instructor). Provides credit for the senior thesis. The Senior Research Seminar can be taken Spring/Fall or Fall/Spring sequence.

Guided, independent, in-depth research culminating in the senior thesis in the spring. Includes discussion about scientific presentations and posters, data analysis, library research methods and scientific writing. Students review work in progress and share results through oral reports. Weekly seminar to review work in progress and share results through oral and written reports. Prerequisite to EESCW3901.

Fall 2015: EESC BC3800
Course Number Section/Call Number Times/Location Instructor Points Enrollment
EESC 3800 001/05632 Th 4:10pm - 6:00pm
Room TBA
Martin Stute 3 35

EESC W4001 Advanced General Geology. 4 points.

CC/GS: Partial Fulfillment of Science Requirement, Lab Required

Prerequisites: one term of college-level calculus, physics, and chemistry.

A concentrated introduction to the solid Earth, its interior and near-surface geology. Intended for students with good backgrounds in the physical sciences but none in geology. Laboratory and field trips.

Fall 2015: EESC W4001
Course Number Section/Call Number Times/Location Instructor Points Enrollment
EESC 4001 001/21082 T Th 2:40pm - 3:55pm
417 Schermerhorn Hall
Christopher Scholz 4 11
EESC 4001 001/21082 T 4:10pm - 5:25pm
417 Schermerhorn Hall
Christopher Scholz 4 11

EESC W4008 Introduction to Atmospheric Science. 3 points.

CC/GS: Partial Fulfillment of Science Requirement

Prerequisites: advanced calculus and general physics, or the instructor's permission.

Basic physical processes controlling atmospheric structure: thermodynamics; radiation physics and radiative transfer; principles of atmospheric dynamics; cloud processes; applications to Earth's atmospheric general circulation, climatic variations, and the atmospheres of the other planets. 

Fall 2015: EESC W4008
Course Number Section/Call Number Times/Location Instructor Points Enrollment
EESC 4008 001/76985 Th 10:10am - 12:40pm
558 Schermerhorn Hall
Lorenzo Polvani 3 12/32

EESC W4050 Global Assessment and Monitoring Using Remote Sensing. 3 points.

CC/GS: Partial Fulfillment of Science Requirement, Lab Required

Prerequisites: Calculus I and Physics I & II are required for Undergraduates who wish to take this course.

Enrollment limited to 24 students. General introduction to fundamentals of remote sensing; electromagnetic radiation, sensors, interpretation, quantitative image analysis and modeling. Example applications in the Earth and environmental sciences are explored through the analysis of remote sensing imagery in a state-or-the-art visualization laboratory. Priority given to graduate students in the natural sciences and engineering. Advanced level undergraduates may be admitted with instructor's permission. 

Fall 2015: EESC W4050
Course Number Section/Call Number Times/Location Instructor Points Enrollment
EESC 4050 001/65023 Th 5:40pm - 6:55pm
417 Schermerhorn Hall
Christopher Small 3 10/24
EESC 4050 001/65023 F 9:00am - 10:45am
558 Schermerhorn Hall
Christopher Small 3 10/24

EESC W4090 Introduction to Geochronology and Thermochronology. 3 points.

CC/GS: Partial Fulfillment of Science Requirement

Prerequisites: One term of college-level calculus, and solid Earth system science or its equivalent.

Given in alternate years. An overview of approaches to estimating ages of sedimentary sequences and events in Earth history. Intended for students with good backgrounds in the physical sciences, who want to use geochronological techniques in their studies. The geochronology emphasis will be on emerging improvements in precision and accuracy of the Ar-Ar and U-Pb systems as well as alternative approaches to directly dating sedimentary strata in the first half. The thermochronology emphasis will be on exploring approaches to understanding uplift and erosion histories. The course will consist of a formal lecture on one day and a recitation on the second day which will emphasize examples and problem solving.

Fall 2015: EESC W4090
Course Number Section/Call Number Times/Location Instructor Points Enrollment
EESC 4090 001/73174 Th 4:10pm - 7:00pm
558 Schermerhorn Hall
Sidney Hemming 3 4

EESC W4223 Sedimentary Geology. 4 points.

Category: AS
CC/GS: Partial Fulfillment of Science Requirement, Lab Required

Prerequisites: EESC W2200 or equivalent introductory geology course approved by the instructor.

Given in alternate years. Two required weekend field trips in September. An overview of sedimentology and stratigraphy for majors and concentrators in Earth and environmental sciences, and for graduate students from other disciplines. Lectures, class discussions, labs, and field exercises are integrated, with emphasis on processes, the characteristics of sediments and sedimentary rocks, interpretation of the geological record, and practical applications. Details at http://eesc.columbia.edu/courses/w4223/

Fall 2015: EESC W4223
Course Number Section/Call Number Times/Location Instructor Points Enrollment
EESC 4223 001/29750 T Th 2:40pm - 3:55pm
506 Schermerhorn Hall
Nicholas Christie-Blick 4 7
EESC 4223 001/29750 T 4:00pm - 6:30pm
506 Schermerhorn Hall
Nicholas Christie-Blick 4 7

EESC W4300 The Earth's Deep Interior. 3 points.

CC/GS: Partial Fulfillment of Science Requirement

Prerequisites: Calculus, differential equations, one year of college physics.

Given in alternate years. An introduction to properties of the Earth's mantle, fluid outer core, and solid inner core. Current knowledge of these features is explored, using observations of seismology, heat flow, gravity, geomagnetism, plus information on the Earth's bulk composition.

Fall 2015: EESC W4300
Course Number Section/Call Number Times/Location Instructor Points Enrollment
EESC 4300 001/68396 T Th 8:40am - 9:55am
555 Schermerhorn Hall
Goran Ekstrom 3 6

EESC W4550 Plant Ecophysiology. 3 points.

CC/GS: Partial Fulfillment of Science Requirement

Prerequisites: general biology or instructor's permission.

Given in alternate years. Plant organismal responses to external environmental conditions and the physiological mechanisms of plants that enable these responses. An evolutionary approach is taken to analyze the potential fitness of plants and plant survival based on adaptation to external environmental factors. 2-hour lab on Fridays at Lamont.

Fall 2015: EESC W4550
Course Number Section/Call Number Times/Location Instructor Points Enrollment
EESC 4550 001/71660 T Th 1:10pm - 2:25pm
417 Schermerhorn Hall
Kevin Griffin 3 20

EESC W4600 Earth Resources and Sustainable Development. 3 points.

CC/GS: Partial Fulfillment of Science Requirement, Discussion Section Required

Prerequisites: None; high school chemistry recommended.

Survey of the origin and extent of mineral resources, fossil fuels, and industrial materials, that are non renewable, finite resources, and the environmental consequences of their extraction and use, using the textbook Earth Resources and the Environment, by James Craig, David Vaughan and Brian Skinner. This course will provide an overview, but will include focus on topics of current societal relevance, including estimated reserves and extraction costs for fossil fuels, geological storage of CO2, sources and disposal methods for nuclear energy fuels, sources and future for luxury goods such as gold and diamonds, and special, rare materials used in consumer electronics (e.g., “Coltan”, mostly from Congo) and in newly emerging technologies such as superconducting magnets and rechargeable batteries (e.g., heavy rare earth elements, mostly from China). Guest lectures from economists, commodity traders and resource geologists will provide “real world” input.

Fall 2015: EESC W4600
Course Number Section/Call Number Times/Location Instructor Points Enrollment
EESC 4600 001/71671 T Th 11:40am - 12:55pm
833 Seeley W. Mudd Building
Peter Kelemen 3 37

EESC W4835 Wetlands and Climate Change. 3 points.

CC/GS: Partial Fulfillment of Science Requirement

Prerequisites: introductory biology or chemistry, or instructor's permission.

Given in alternate years. Enrollment limited to 20. Priority given to juniors and seniors. Analysis of modern wetland dynamics and the important ecological, biogeochemical, and hydrological functions taking place in marshes, bogs, fens, and swamps, with a field emphasis. Wetlands as fossil repositories, the paleoenvironmental history they provide, and their role in the carbon cycle. Current wetland destruction, remediation attempts, and valuation. Laboratory analysis and field trips.

Fall 2015: EESC W4835
Course Number Section/Call Number Times/Location Instructor Points Enrollment
EESC 4835 001/27745 T Th 11:40am - 12:55pm
506 Schermerhorn Hall
Dorothy Peteet 3 15

EESC W4917 Earth/Human Interactions. 3 points.

CC/GS: Partial Fulfillment of Science Requirement

Enrollment: limited to 20. Priority given to senior natural and social science majors, then graduate students. Based upon the most current understanding of our planet our interactions, and how we make decisions,  a new knowledge-based "green" framework is developed for our relationship to our planet and to each other as well as its general implications for human stewardship of our planet. This new knowledge-based  framework is explored using case studies, class participation, and  term papers on  specific current scientific and policy issues like global warming that impact the sustainability and resilience of our planet. 

Fall 2015: EESC W4917
Course Number Section/Call Number Times/Location Instructor Points Enrollment
EESC 4917 001/68700 M W 1:10pm - 2:25pm
555 Schermerhorn Hall
Peter Eisenberger 3 7

EESC W4923 Biological Oceanography. 3 points.

CC/GS: Partial Fulfillment of Science Requirement

Prerequisites: Introductory college-level biology and chemistry.

Given in alternate years.  An overview of the biology and ecology of the oceans with a focus on the interaction between marine organisms and the physics and chemistry of the oceans.

Fall 2015: EESC W4923
Course Number Section/Call Number Times/Location Instructor Points Enrollment
EESC 4923 001/74741 T Th 4:10pm - 5:25pm
555 Schermerhorn Hall
Andrew Juhl 3 7/25

EESC W4924 Introduction to Atmospheric Chemistry. 3 points.

CC/GS: Partial Fulfillment of Science Requirement

Prerequisites: Physics W1201, Chemistry W1403, Calculus III, or equivalent or permission from instructor. EESC W2100 preferred.

Physical and chemical processes determining atmospheric composition and the implications for climate and regional air pollution. Atmospheric evolution and human influence; basics of greenhouse effect, photolysis, reaction kinetics; atmospheric transport of trace species; stratospheric ozone chemistry; tropospheric hydrocarbon chemistry; oxidizing power, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, carbon, mercury cycles; chemistry-climate-biosphere interactions; aerosols, smog, acid rain.

Fall 2015: EESC W4924
Course Number Section/Call Number Times/Location Instructor Points Enrollment
EESC 4924 001/82899 T Th 11:40am - 12:55pm
417 Schermerhorn Hall
Arlene Fiore 3 1

EESC W4925 Principles of Physical Oceanography. 3 points.

CC/GS: Partial Fulfillment of Science Requirement

Prerequisites: Recommended preparation: a solid background in mathematics, physics, and chemistry.

Physical properties of seawater, water masses and their distribution, sea-air interaction influence on the ocean structure, basic ocean circulation pattern, relation of diffusion and advection with respect to distribution of ocean properties, ocean tides and waves, turbulence, and introduction to ocean dynamics. 

Fall 2015: EESC W4925
Course Number Section/Call Number Times/Location Instructor Points Enrollment
EESC 4925 001/68871 T Th 2:40pm - 3:55pm
555 Schermerhorn Hall
Arnold Gordon, Ryan Abernathey 3 10

EESC W4929 Mixing and Dispersion in the Ocean. 3 points.

CC/GS: Partial Fulfillment of Science Requirement

Prerequisites: Recommended preparation: some background in fluids, as provided by courses like EESC W4925 or APPH E4200, or the instructor's permission.

Given in alternate years. Mixing and dispersion in the ocean is of fundamental importance in many oceanographic problems, including climate modeling, paleo and present-day circulation studies, pollutant dispersion, biogeography, etc. The main goal of this course is to provide in-depth understanding (rather than mathematical derivations) of the causes and consequences of mixing in the ocean, and of the properties of dispersion. After introducing the concepts of diffusion and turbulence, instruments and techniques for quantifying mixing and dispersion in the ocean are reviewed and compared. Next, the instabilities and processes giving rise to turbulence in the ocean are discussed. The course concludes with a series of lectures on mixing and dispersion in specific oceanographic settings, including boundary layers, shallow seas, continental shelves, sea straits, seamounts, and mid-ocean ridge flanks.

Of Related Interest

Environmental Science (Barnard)
EESC BC1001 Environmental Science I
EESC BC1011 Environmental Science Science I Lab
EESC BC3014 Field Methods in Environmental Science
EESC BC3016 Environmental Measurements
EESC BC3017 Environmental Data Analysis
EESC BC3025 Hydrology
EESC BC3033 Waste Management
EESC BC3050 Big Data with Python: Python for Environmental Analysis and Visualisation
EESC BC3200 Ecotoxicology
EESC BC3300 Workshop in Sustainable Development
Physics
PHYS W3018 Weapons of Mass Destruction

Spring 2015

EESC W1010 Geological Excursion To Death Valley, Ca. 2 points.

Discussion Section Required

Enrollment limited to 20. The trip is restricted to first-years and sophomores from Columbia College/General Studies, Barnard College, and the School of Engineering and Applied Science. Early application is advised, and no later than November 7. A spring-break excursion focused on the geology of Death Valley and adjacent areas of the eastern California desert. Discussion sessions ahead of the trip provide necessary background. Details at: http://eesc.columbia.edu/courses/v1010/  Discussion Section Required.

EESC W1011 Earth: Origin, Evolution, Processes, Future. 4 points.

CC/GS: Partial Fulfillment of Science Requirement, Lab Required

What is the nature of our planet and how did it form?  This class explores Earth's internal structure, its dynamical character expressed in plate tectnics and earthquakes, and its climate system. It also explores what Earth's future  may hold. Lecture and lab. Students who wish to take only the lectures should register for W1411.

EESC W1411 Earth: Origin, Evolution, Processes, Future: Lectures. 3 points.

CC/GS: Partial Fulfillment of Science Requirement

The lectures of EESC W1011. What is the nature of our planet and how did it form? This class explores Earth's internal structure, its dynamical character expressed in plate tectonics and earthquakes, and its climate system. It also explores what Earth's future may hold.

EESC W2100 Earth's Environmental Systems: The Climate System. 4.5 points.

CC/GS: Partial Fulfillment of Science Requirement, BC: Partial Fulfillment of General Education Requirement: Laboratory Science (SCI)., BC: Fulfillment of General Education Requirement: Quantitative and Deductive Reasoning (QUA)., Lab Required

Prerequisites: high school algebra. Recommended preparation: high school chemistry and physics; and one semester of college science.

Priority given to Columbia and Barnard earth science, environmental science, and environmental biology majors should enrollment limits  be reinstated. Origin and development of the atmosphere and oceans, formation of winds, storms and ocean currents, reasons for changes through geologic time. Recent influence of human activity: the ozone hole, global warming, water pollution. Laboratory exploration of topics through demonstrations, experimentation, computer data analysis, and modeling.

Fall 2015: EESC W2100
Course Number Section/Call Number Times/Location Instructor Points Enrollment
EESC 2100 001/65140 T Th 10:10am - 11:25am
603 Schermerhorn Hall
Adam Sobel, Sonya Dyhrman 4.5 49
EESC 2100 001/65140 W 4:10pm - 7:00pm
558 Schermerhorn Hall
Adam Sobel, Sonya Dyhrman 4.5 49

EESC W2200 Earth's Environmental Systems: The Solid Earth System. 4.5 points.

CC/GS: Partial Fulfillment of Science Requirement, BC: Partial Fulfillment of General Education Requirement: Laboratory Science (SCI)., Lab Required

Prerequisites: high school algebra and chemistry. Recommended preparation: high school physics.

Priority given to Columbia and Barnard earth science, environmental science, and environmental biology majors should enrollment limits be necessary. Columbia and Barnard majors should plan to take W2200 before their senior year to avoid conflicts with the Senior Seminar. Exploration of how the solid Earth works, today and in the past, focusing on Earth in the Solar system, continents and oceans, the Earth's history, mountain systems on land and sea, minerals and rocks, weathering and erosion, hydrological cycle and rivers, geochronology, plate tectonics, earthquakes, volcanoes, fossil fuels. Laboratory exploration of topics through examination of rock samples, experimentation, computer data analysis, field exercises, and modeling.

Fall 2015: EESC W2200
Course Number Section/Call Number Times/Location Instructor Points Enrollment
EESC 2200 001/67504 T Th 2:40pm - 3:55pm
603 Schermerhorn Hall
Steven Goldstein, Sidney Hemming 4.5 43
EESC 2200 001/67504 T 4:10pm - 7:00pm
603 Schermerhorn Hall
Steven Goldstein, Sidney Hemming 4.5 43

EESC W2300 Earth's Environmental Systems: The Life System. 4.5 points.

CC/GS: Partial Fulfillment of Science Requirement, BC: Partial Fulfillment of General Education Requirement: Laboratory Science (SCI)., Lab Required

Prerequisites: high school algebra. Recommended preparation: high school chemistry and physics.

Priority given to Columbia and Barnard earth science, environmental science, and environmental biology majors should enrollment limits be reinstated. Role of life in biogeochemical cycles, relationship of biodiversity and evolution to the physical Earth, vulnerability of ecosystems to environmental change; causes and effects of extinctions through geologic time (dinosaurs and mammoths) and today. Exploration of topics through laboratories, demonstrations, computer data analysis and modeling. REQUIRED LAB: EESC W2310. Students should see the Directory of Classes for lab sessions being offered and select one.

EESC W2310 Earth's Environmental Systems: The Life System Required Lab: Sections 001, 002, 003, 004,005. 0 points.

Lab Required
Required Lab for W2300

This three hour lab is required of all students who enroll in EESC W2300. There are currently five lab sections.

EESC W3000 Tutorial Study in Earth and Environmental Sciences. 1-3 points.

CC/GS: Partial Fulfillment of Science Requirement

Prerequisites: declared major in Earth and environmental sciences and the department's permission.

Students with particular interest in one of the many components of the Earth and environmental sciences should approach a director of undergraduate studies during the registration period so that tutorial-level exposure to the subject can be arranged. Each point requires two hours each week of readings, discussion, and research work under the close supervision of a member of the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, American Museum of Natural History, or Goddard Institute for Space Studies. In consultation with the supervisor, the student selects a topic for intensive study and the time and place of the tutorial discussion sessions. May be repeated for credit up to a maximum of 12 points, with a maximum of 6 points with each staff member. 

EESC W3201 Solid Earth Dynamics. 3 points.

CC/GS: Partial Fulfillment of Science Requirement

Prerequisites: Any 1000-level or 2000-level EESC course; MATH V1101 (Calculus I) and PHYS W1201 (General Physics I) or their equivalents. Concurrent enrollment in PHYS W1201 is acceptable with permission of the instructor.

Properties and processes affecting the evolution and behavior of the solid Earth. This course will focus on the geophysical processes that build mountains and ocean basins, drive plate tectonics, and otherwise lead to a dynamic planet.  Topics include heat flow and mantle circulation, earthquakes and seismic waves, gravity, Earth's magnetic field, and flow of glaciers and ice sheets.

EESC W3901 Environmental Science Senior Seminar. 3 points.

Prerequisites: EESC BC3800 or EESC BC3801 and a good grounding in basic sciences.

Guided, independent, in-depth research culminating in the senior thesis in the spring. Includes discussion about scientific presentations and posters, data analysis, library research methods and scientific writing. Students review work in progress and share results through oral reports. Weekly seminar to review work in progress and share results through oral and written reports.

EESC W4210 Geophysical Fluid Dynamics. 3 points.

Prerequisites: APMA E3101, APMA E3201 or equivalents and APPH E4200 or equivalent or permission from the instructor.

Fundamental concepts in the dynamics of rotating stratified flows. Geostrophic and hydrostatic balances, potential vorticity, f and beta plane approximations, gravity and Rossby waves, geostrophic adjustment and quasigeostrophy, baroclinic and barotropic instabilities.

EESC W4230 Crustal Deformation. 3 points.

CC/GS: Partial Fulfillment of Science Requirement

Prerequisites: introductory geology and one year of calculus. Recommended preparation: higher levels of mathematics.

Introduction to the deformation processes in the Earth's crust. Fundamental theories of stress and strain; rock behavior in both brittle and ductile fields; earthquake processes; ductile deformation; large-scale crustal contractional and extensional events.

EESC W4701 Introduction to Igneous Petrology. 4 points.

CC/GS: Partial Fulfillment of Science Requirement, Lab Required

Prerequisites: introductory geology or the equivalent. Recommended preparation: EESC W4113 and knowledge of chemistry.

Given in alternate years. Compositional characteristics of igneous and metamorphic rocks and how they can be used as tools to investigate earth processes. Development of igneous and metamorphic rocks in a plate-tectonic framework.

EESC W4885 The Chemistry of Continental Waters. 3 points.

CC/GS: Partial Fulfillment of Science Requirement

Given in alternate years. Recommended preparation: a solid background in basic chemistry. Introduction to geochemical cycles involving the atmosphere, land, and biosphere; chemistry of precipitation, weathering reactions, rivers, lakes, estuaries, and groundwaters; students are introduced to the use of major and minor ions as tracers of chemical reactions and biological processes that regulate the chemical composition of  continental waters.

EESC W4920 Paleoceanography. 3 points.

CC/GS: Partial Fulfillment of Science Requirement

Given in alternate years. The course examines the ocean's response to external climatic forcing such as solar luminosity and changes in the Earth's orbit, and to internal influences such as atmospheric composition, using deep-sea sediments, corals, ice cores and other paleoceanographic archives. A rigorous analysis of the assumptions underlying the use of climate proxies and their interpretations will be presented. Particular emphasis will be placed on amplifiers of climate change during the alternating ice ages and interglacial intervals of the last few million years, such as natural variations in atmospheric "greenhouse gases" and changes in deep water formation rates, as well as mechanisms of rapid climate change during the late Pleistocene. The influence of changes in the Earth's radiation distribution and boundary conditions on the global ocean circulation, Asian monsoon system and El Nino/Southern Oscillation frequency and intensity, as well as interactions among these systems will be examined using proxy data and models. This course complements W4937 Cenozoic Paleoceanography and is intended as part of a sequence with W4330 Terrestrial Paleoclimate for students with interests in Paleoclimate.

EESC W4930 Earth's Oceans and Atmosphere. 3 points.

CC/GS: Partial Fulfillment of Science Requirement

Prerequisites: Recommended preparation: a good background in the physical sciences.

Physical properties of water and air. Overview of the stratification and circulation of Earth's ocean and atmosphere and their governing processes; ocean-atmosphere interaction; resultant climate system; natural and anthropogenic forced climate change.

Generally Alternate Year Courses

EESC W1001 Dinosaurs and the History of Life: Lectures and Lab
EESC W1201 Environmental Risks and Disasters
EESC W1401 Dinosaurs and the History of Life: Lectures
EESC W3015 The Earth's Carbon Cycle
EESC W4009 Chemical Geology
EESC W4020 Humans and the Carbon Cycle
EESC W4040 Climate Thermodynamics and Energy Transfer
EESC W4085 Geodynamics
EESC W4090 Introduction to Geochronology and Thermochronology
EESC W4223 Sedimentary Geology
EESC W4300 The Earth's Deep Interior
EESC W4330 Introduction to Terrestrial Paleoclimate
EESC W4550 Plant Ecophysiology
EESC W4630 Air-sea interaction
EESC W4701 Introduction to Igneous Petrology
EESC W4835 Wetlands and Climate Change
EESC W4885 The Chemistry of Continental Waters
EESC W4920 Paleoceanography
EESC W4923 Biological Oceanography
EESC W4925 Principles of Physical Oceanography
EESC W4929 Mixing and Dispersion in the Ocean
EESC W4947 Plate Tectonics
EESC W4949 Introduction to Seismology